As part of the energy transition, new renewable energy technologies will have to fill the gaps in historical ENRs, by being more flexible, intelligent and localizable.
If the improvement of technologies linked to electricity production via renewable energy sources, solar and wind in the lead, makes it possible to obtain increasingly attractive returns, the State, via the France 2030 plan and others existing mechanisms at European level, wants to give itself every chance of producing the renewable electricity that society will need in the near future.
For the massification of electrified transport, to decarbonize industrial activities and electrify them when possible, and more generally to meet the electricity needs in the territory which will increase, with electricity consumption which, according to RTEcould reach 640 TWh in France, while it was 460 TWh in 2022, we will have to implement decarbonized means of electricity production, beyond what our nuclear installations, and to a completely different extent for the moment our hydroelectric, solar and wind means of production can produce.
Hydrogen is a track, the main advantage of which is its ability to be a tool for storing electrical energy in the form of gas. And weaknesses, like its volatility and explosiveness. The recent discovery of white hydrogen deposits, in Lorraine and, the future will tell, in the Pyrenees, suggests an alternative to the production of green hydrogen, via electrolysers powered by carbon-free electricity, why not of nuclear origin .
Other avenues exist, which use solar and wind power. transparent solar panels for windows, greenhouses or car windows for example, photovoltaic tileswind turbines equipped with solar technologies on their blades… The combination of solar and wind is interesting because it makes it possible to eliminate, at least in part, the intermittency of production of these energies, their Achilles heel. It remains to be seen whether it will be possible to make these innovations profitable to deploy them on a large scale.
The exploitation of tidal energy is also an exploited track, with an advantage, the possibility of producing energy locally and powering an island for example. Several devices exist and are even already deployed, but not on a large scale. Of the dikes are sometimes even equipped with tidal technologies.
Miniaturized electricity production devices, or at least designed to take place in homes, vehicles or factories, are multiplying. Of smart radiatorwhich stores electricity during off-peak hours to make it available when needed, equipped with solar panels and a battery, at electric tire which recharges itself, these devices all meet implicit specifications: creating electricity from renewable sources, in an ultra-localized manner, and even adjacent to the place where electricity consumption will take place. With concern for intelligence. Indeed, the integration of artificial intelligence and connectivity in these devices, as in devices intended to produce electricity on a large scale, will make it possible to adjust production closely to demand, which is not achieved currently in the most efficient way possible.
If this list is of course not exhaustive, the characteristics common to all these innovations form a list which is not exhaustive: efficiency, intelligence and profitability.