The final agreement adopted this Wednesday, December 13 during COP28 in Dubai calls on the world to turn away from fossil fuels. Although it has been described as historic and a turning point by some observers, everything remains to be done.
After two weeks of negotiations, the 197 countries meeting in Dubai for COP28 reached an agreement this Wednesday, December 13. This text calls in particular on the world to “ moving away from fossil fuels in energy systems » and to “accelerate efforts to phase out coal-fired electricity without carbon capture and storage”. Countries will have to contribute to these “ global efforts” to their national level.
To move away from fossil fuels, this will include “triple global renewable energy capacity and double the average annual rate of energy efficiency improvement by 2030”. The text also calls for the development of nuclear power, carbon capture and storage (CCS) and low-carbon hydrogen. If he does not mention the end of all fossil fuel subsidies, he mentions “ an exit from ineffective subsidies that do not tackle energy poverty or just transitions, as soon as possible.”
A truly historic agreement?
« This deal is a good deal” et « a victory for multilateralism”, greeted the Minister of Energy Transition Agnès Pannier-Runacher. She pointed out that the text refers thirteen times to the objective of limiting global warming to 1.5°C. He mentions the need to reach a global peak in greenhouse gas emissions in 2025, reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 43% by 2030, by 60% in 2035 compared to 2019 and to achieve carbon neutrality in 2050. This text was based on all the findings of the IPCC”assured the minister.
For his part, Arnaud Gilles, climate and energy advocacy officer at WWF France, mentions “ an important step » et « a real turning point » to turn away from fossil fuels. However, Romain Ioualalen, campaign manager “ world politics » to the NGO Oil Change Internationaldenounces the mention of CCS technologies and the potential use of transition energies, namely “ natural gas and liquefied natural gas, fossil fuels “. He also fears that restricting energy reduction to energy systems alone “ leaves room for the expansion of fossil fuels in sectors such as petrochemicals, plastics or fertilizers ».
From now on, everything remains to be done. “ This is really a very good basis for work, but we must not lose sight of the fact that it is a race against time and today, every minute of implementation counts, these are not just words on a agreement », Warned Agnès Pannier-Runacher. Arnaud Gilles from WWF announces his intention for the next COPs: “ it will be necessary to send the message that it is necessary [l’accord, ndlr] take it seriously, with lots of renewable energy, but not the mirage of carbon capture and storage technologies ».